sodium cooled reactor submarine

This was the case at the Monju Nuclear Power Plant in a 1995 accident. In development. Suffered a terrorist attack during its construction. The submarine’s operational life was cut short due to a reactor accident. <> SABRE4 (Dobson and O’Neill, 1992) is widely used in the UK; it is a 3-D sub-channel code designed to predict the thermal-hydraulics of a sodium fast reactor fuel assembly. Magnesium oxide has an entire order of magnitude smaller probability of interacting with neutrons (thermal and fast) than elements like iron. To achieve greater efficacy and power density, the Navy built Seawolf with a liquid metal (sodium) cooled nuclear reactor. endobj A consecutive generation number 3. The USS Seawolf submarine initially used a Na-cooled reactor that was replaced in 1959 by a PWR to standardize the fleet, because of superheater bypass problems causing mediocre performance and as a result of a sodium fire.The steam turbines had their blades replaced to use saturated rather than superheated steam.The reactor was housed in a containment vessel designed to contain a sodium fire. The Seawolf submarine reactor was unique because it was not a light-water cooled reactor like that installed in the Nautilus. world’s first operational sodium-cooled reactor. A sodium-cooled fast reactor is a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium. The nuclear fuel cycle employs a full actinide recycle with two major options: One is an intermediate-size (150–600 MWe) sodium-cooled reactor with uranium-plutonium-minor-actinide-zirconium metal alloy fuel, supported by a fuel cycle based on pyrometallurgical reprocessing in facilities integrated with the reactor. [2] The high temperatures reached by the coolant (the Phénix reactor outlet temperature was 560 C) permit a higher thermodynamic efficiency than in water cooled reactors. The French Rapsodie, British Prototype Fast Reactor and others used this approach. When it does absorb a neutron it produces sodium-24, which has a half-life of 15 hours and decays to magnesium-24, a stable isotope. In once through type steam generators water enters as single phase liquid (sub cooled) gets evaporated and superheated and leaves as super heated steam. The lead-cooled reactor design has been proposed as a generation IV reactor.Plans for … Sodium-23 is a very weak absorber of neutrons. FCCI is eutectic melting between the fuel and the cladding; uranium, plutonium, and lanthanum (a fission product) inter-diffuse with the iron of the cladding. In these types of steam generators two phase length … Several sodium-cooled fast reactors have been built, some still in operation, and others are in planning or under construction. After the previous success applying SHARP to challenging SFR problems, the focus in FY19 and FY20 expanded to additional fast reactor applications including lead cooled fast reactors (LFR) and sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR). for Fast Reactors Cooled By Sodium, Lead, and Lead-Bismuth Eutectic No. The fuel sub-assembly consists in a hexagonal duct wall wrapped around the fuel pins (Fig. New sodium-cooled reactors are under construction in Russia, China and India. There have been two main design approaches to sodium-cooled reactors. Air flowing past the outside of the tubes removed heat, cooling the liquid sodium inside. ~����؋�F�8���h�FZm�����i(�x��ή�T!O~ ֋�P��C�c�q�������+�9���V���pP�]���e����.O��8�%�ڏ��"�#tDD�z���#n�뱗 Seawolf traveled over 71,000 miles on her sodium-cooled plant, and interestingly not one single reactor compartment entry was made during the roughly two year time span in which the SIR Mark B, later known as S2G plant was operated. The Westinghouse Lead Fast Reactor (LFR) is a medium-sized, passively safe modular reactor being developed to reduce front-end capital cost and generate flexible and cost-competitive electricity. [2] Sodium also need not be pressurized since its boiling point is much higher than the reactor's operating temperature, and sodium does not corrode steel reactor parts. A design work-around has been proposed to have an inert matrix. Liquid metallic sodium may be used as the sole coolant, carrying heat from the core. Most of these were experimental plants, which are no longer operational. SODIUM COOLED FAST REACTORS: 1. 2 0 obj This makes it difficult to use water as a coolant for a fast reactor because the water tends to slow (moderate) the fast neutrons into thermal neutrons (though concepts for reduced moderation water reactors exist). Westinghouse is currently developing a Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concept – a next-generation nuclear plant designed to compete even in the most challenging global energy markets. ‡  over 200 ka: Long-lived fission product, The operating temperature should not exceed the melting temperature of the fuel. Nautilus sported the former, and Seawolf the sodium-cooled S2G Submarine Intermediate Reactor (SIR). ƒ  fissile Without isotopic enrichmentavailable (of uranium or hydrogen in water), only a handful of configurations couldsustain a chain reaction. Sodium features a reasonably low melting temperature, but also a low boiling point (1156 K), which raises safety concerns regarding unprotected transients leading to a coolant heat-up. <> A sodium-cooled fast reactor is a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium. 1 SODIUM TECHNOLOGY . Inside a fast reactor Liquid sodium from heat exchanger heats water in a steam generator Steam drives a turbine to generate electricity Liquid sodium pumped through baffle to be heated by reactor core Baffle coolant (sodium) Pump SOURCE: GE HITACHI Heated sodium passes through a heat exchanger. The S1G reactor is a naval reactor used by the United States Navy to provide electricity generation and propulsion on warships.The S1G designation stands for: S = Submarine platform 1 = First generation core designed by the contractor; G = General Electric was the contracted designer; This nuclear reactor was constructed by General Electric as a prototype for the USS Seawolf submarine. FCCI causes the cladding to reduce in strength and could eventually rupture. þ  neutron poison (thermal neutron capture cross section greater than 3k barns) in the range of 2). Does not include submarine (S1G/S2G) or space reactors (SNAP). No fission products №  primarily a naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) In the loop type, the heat exchangers are external to the reactor tank. With innovations to reduce capital cost, such as making a modular design, removing a primary loop, integrating the pump and intermediate heat exchanger, or simply find better materials for construction, the SFR can be a viable technology for electricity generation.[11]. The US EBR-2, French Phénix and others used this approach, and it is used by India's Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor and China's CFR-600. The PRISM core is lo- cated in a pool-type containment vessel and is fueled with metallic fuel. The concept is generally very similar to sodium-cooled fast reactor, and most liquid-metal reactors have used sodium instead of lead.Few lead-cooled reactors have been constructed, except for some Soviet nuclear submarine reactors in the 1970s, but a number of proposed new nuclear reactor designs are lead-cooled.. More recent fast reactors under construction: – CEFR (China) 2008 25 MW e – PFBR (India) 2010 500 MW e – BN-800 (Russia) China has an ambitious vision to deploy 200 GWe of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors by 2050 (12% of projected capacity). It also needs no pressure vessel, as the liquid metal is typicaly at atmospheric pressure. Rather, it was cooled by liquid (molten) sodium. SLTHEN is a modified version of ENERGY, specifically developed for LMR (e.g., sodium fast reactor), providing improved computational efficiency and simplified energy equation mixing model ( Yang, 1997 ). Reference Core Specification The neutronic and … Another advantage of liquid sodium coolant is that sodium melts at 371K and boils / vaporizes at 1156K, a total temperature range of 785K between solid / frozen and gas / vapor states. Reactivated in 2010, then permanently closed. IAEA NUCLEAR ENERGY SERIES PUBLICATIONS STRUCTURE OF THE IAEA NUCLEAR ENERGY SERIES Under the terms of Articles III.A and VIII.C of its Statute, the IAEA is authorized to foster the exchange of … ₡  has thermal neutron capture cross section in the range of 8–50 barns 1 0 obj Each reactor design is given a three-character designation consisting of: 1. On November 30, 2019, CTV reported that the 3 Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Ontario and Saskatchewan are planning an announcement about an interprovincial plan to cooperate on small sodium fast modular nuclear reactors from New Brunswick-based ARC Nuclear Canada. In the pool type, the primary coolant is entirely contained in the main reactor vessel, which therefore includes not only the reactor core but also a heat exchanger. x��Z[o�:~/���}s�D�(R�E�I�6mNP�8=���t��-������P�E�T�8�Ij���\��f��aU�35�٧O�úV�LOٯ�q����x�����5/T���� ��|�n�?\?,�=����㇀��_��H���"��b���^�_>~�5^�����������&)�$���5x1��NM��s�Z�. A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal.Liquid metal cooled reactors were first adapted for nuclear submarine use but have also been extensively studied for power generation applications.. Metal coolants remove heat more rapidly and allow much higher power density.This … †  range 4–97 a: Medium-lived fission product Suspended for 15 years. %���� 1.1.1 Modeling of precipitation of oxides and hydrides in a Cold trap (Contact person: Shri M.G. In addition, neutrons cause it to become radioactive; however, activated sodium has a half-life of only 15 hours. stream The Soviets were pushing very very high speeds out of their submarines to help them run the various NATO ASW defences. However, the end-of-core-life arrived and the boat was put in the hands of its builders in December 1958 to begin conversion to the water-cooled plant. Sodium has only one stable isotope, sodium-23. Reactor Database. Magnesium oxide has been proposed as the inert matrix. Seawolf traveled over 71,000 miles on her sodium-cooled plant, and interestingly not one single reactor compartment entry was made during the roughly two year time span in which the SIR Mark B, later known as S2G plant was operated. Few lead-cooled reactors have been constructed, except for some Soviet nuclear submarine reactors in the 1970s, but a number of proposed new nuclear reactor designs are lead-cooled. This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 15:50. The primary advantage of liquid metal coolants, such as liquid sodium, is that metal atoms are weak neutron moderators. Bill Gates' TerraPower is planning to build its own reactors named Natrium.[1]. %PDF-1.5 In fact, there were two nuclear powerplants being developed simultaneously: a pressurised water reactor (PWR) by Westinghouse and a more efficient Sodium-cooled reactor by General Electric. The acronym SFR particularly refers to two Generation IV reactor proposals, one based on existing liquid metal cooled reactor (LMFR) technology using mixed oxide fuel (MOX), the other based on the metal-fueled integral fast reactor. Fuel-to-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) has to be designed against. [2], Another problem is sodium leaks, regarded by critic of fast reactors M.V. The reactor powering the Nautilus was a pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by Westinghouse. <>>> [3], A disadvantage of sodium is its chemical reactivity, which requires special precautions to prevent and suppress fires. The SFR's fast spectrum also makes it possible to use available fissile and fertile materials (including depleted uranium) considerably more efficiently than thermal spectrum reactors with once-through fuel cycles. [12], Type of nuclear reactor cooled by molten sodium, Actinides and fission products by half-life, Plus radium (element 88). have a half-life When creating the new nuclear Navy in the 1950s, then-Captain Hyman Rickover determined that two types of reactor power plants would be evaluated to power submarines, a water cooled reactor and a molten sodium cooled reactor. The SFR design benefits … 3 0 obj When nuclear fission was discovered in 1938, 235U existed at 0.7% in naturalUranium (decayed down from over 25% when Earth was formed). The amount of transuranic transmutation is limited by the production of plutonium from uranium. Despite sodium's low specific heat (as compared to water), this enables the absorption of significant heat in the liquid phase, even allowing for safety margins. The second is a medium to large (500–1,500 MWe) sodium-cooled reactor with mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel, supported by a fuel cycle based upon advanced aqueous processing at a central location serving a number of reactors. The surface alloying by the so-called GESA method enhances corrosion resistance of the structural material further, at least up to 870 K However, the end-of-core-life arrived and the boat was put in the hands of its builders in December 1958 to begin conversion to the water-cooled plant. A letter for the reactor's designer ("W" for Westinghouse, "G" for General Electric, "C" for Combustion Engineering, and "B" for Bechtel) For example, a S9G reactor represents a submarine (S), ninth-generation (9), General Electric designed reactor (G). The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) Gen IV system is considered to be the design with the greatest maturity for the burning of minor actinides (MA) because fast spectrum neutrons generally have a greater probability for the fission of MA than thermal. Although the USS Seawolf have completed her sea trials, some major draw-backs in the sodium cooled project made it less attractive than the water cooled project, and the sodium-cooled reactor was deemed by Admiral Hickover as ex-pensive, complex, and difficult to repair. Highly powerful reactors seems to be one way to do it. [3] The molten sodium, being electrically conductive, can also be pumped by electromagnetic pumps. She was the U.S. Navy ’s second nuclear submarine. Sodium has a melting … New sodium-cooled reactors are under construction in Russia, China and India. Together with the BN-600, one of only two commercial fast reactors in the world. At that time, in 1947, we did not know which one would work. m  metastable isomer When combined with the Soviets efforts for … 4 0 obj Design Study on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Loaded with LLFP Transmutation Sub-Assemblies Naoyuki TAKAKI * and Tomoyasu MIZUNO JAPAN NUCLEAR CYCLE DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE O-arai Engineering Center, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 Japan ... V. Sodium-Cooled Core with LLFP Sub-Assemblies 1. Was used to power a water de-salination plant. totype to be installed on land, an operational reactor to be installed in the sub-marine, and a spare reactor [4]. The alloy that forms has a low eutectic melting temperature. If sodium comes into contact with water it reacts to produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen, and the hydrogen burns when in contact with air. endobj For operational vessels in 1997, Bellona lists 109 Russian submarines (plus four naval surface ships) and 108 attack submarines (SSN) and 25 ballistic missile ones apart fro… �-���wo�H댘�0�b���3�����g�_S�+���0Z����O�:�K e� Each PRISM produces 311 MW of electricity. Sodium features a reasonably low melting temperature, but also a low boiling point (1156 ... class submarines and its effectiveness up to 820 K has been confirmed by the EU ADS research. Important safety features of the system include a long thermal response time, a large margin to coolant boiling, a primary system that operates near atmospheric pressure, and intermediate sodium system between the radioactive sodium in the primary system and the water and steam in the power plant. Enrico Fermi and co. figured it out by 1942, and operated thefirst nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1), using pieces of natural uranium metaldispersed carefully in a lattice of high-purity graphite blocks in a Chicago squash court. In theory a liquid sodium, or liquid lead cooled reactor core could be very very small for it's power loading. Russia built 248 nuclear submarines and five naval surface vessels (plus nine icebreakers) powered by 468 reactors between 1950 and 2003, and was then operating about 60 nuclear naval vessels. (Bellona gives 247 subs with 456 reactors 1958-95.) The cylindrical fuel pins are arranged in a triangular lattice: they are separated from each other by … 'r��N�i����si|��F�h)Ǟ�K�?��R%�'�j:��ʥPq��g���ص�ݷe]��~���!�H��Dsf��O (1). The S2G designation stands for: S = Submarine platform 2 = Second generation core designed by the contractor Moreover, the high thermal conductivity of sodium effectively creates a reservoir of heat capacity which provides thermal inertia against overheating. Water is a much stronger neutron moderator because the hydrogen atoms found in water are much lighter than metal atoms, and therefore neutrons lose more energy in collisions with hydrogen atoms. The … The S2G reactor was a naval reactor used by the United States Navy to provide electricity generation and propulsion on warships, and the only liquid metal cooled reactor yet deployed by the US Navy. Largest SFR ever built. Let me explain how this came about. Together with the BN-800, one of only two commercial fast reactors in the world. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> During a discussion of the SIR or Submarine Intermediate Reactor, the sodium cooled submarine plant, Rickover said the following on the record: "At the time we started working on the nuclear propulsion program, sir, we went to two equivalent approaches. Basic operation of naval ship or submarine Most naval nuclear reactors are of the pressurized water type, with the exception of a few attempts at using liquid sodium cooled reactors. It was a liquid metal … Workers additionally increased the maximum limit on the temperature of the primary loop’s liquid sodium to enable SRE to operate at a higher power level. [10], The SFR is designed for management of high-level wastes and, in particular, management of plutonium and other actinides. 100–210 ka ... Legend for superscript symbols By comparison, the liquid temperature range of water (between ice and gas) is just 100K at normal, sea-level atmospheric pressure conditions. The concept is generally very similar to sodium-cooled fast reactor, and most liquid-metal reactors have used sodium instead of lead. NP-T-1.6 Guides INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA ISBN 978–92–0–131810–7 ISSN 1995–7807. endobj A primary water circuit transfers heat generated from nuclear fission in the fuel to a steam generator; this water is kept under pressure so it does not boil. Seawolf was built by the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics in Groton, Conn., and commissioned on March 30, 1957. The outlet temperature is approximately 510–550 degrees Celsius for both. Ramana as "pretty much impossible to prevent".[4]. Liquid sodium flowed inside tubes within the airblast heat exchanger. As a fast reactor, the SFR appeals to the Gen IV requirements of greater fuel efficiency and the reduction in waste production. ThePowerReactorInnovativeSmallModule(PRISM) designedbyGEHitachiNuclearEnergyisasmall,mod- ular, sodium-cooled fast reactor. Will be followed by BN-1200M as a model for export. Because of its compact core, Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, the father of the US nuclear navy, had a sodium-cooled reactor built for the second US nuclear submarine. While actually a sub-actinide, it immediately precedes actinium (89) and follows a three-element gap of instability after, This is the heaviest nuclide with a half-life of at least four years before the ", https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-nuclearpower-terrapower/bill-gates-nuclear-venture-plans-reactor-to-complement-solar-wind-power-boom-idUSKBN25N2U8, "TerraPower Quietly Explores New Nuclear Reactor Strategy", "Neutronic Assessment of Transmutation Target Compositions in Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Geometries", https://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/three-premiers-plan-to-fight-climate-change-by-investing-in-small-nuclear-reactors-1.4709865, Idaho National Laboratory Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Fact Sheet, Generation IV International Forum SFR website, "Meet the Man Who Could End Global Warming", Small sealed transportable autonomous (SSTAR), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium-cooled_fast_reactor&oldid=996274778, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A letter for the type of ship the reactor is intended for ("A" for aircraft carrier, "C" for cruiser, "D" for destroyer, and "S" for submarine) 2. Be pumped by electromagnetic pumps handful of configurations couldsustain a chain reaction the alloy that forms has low... Of sodium effectively creates a reservoir of heat capacity which provides thermal inertia against overheating General Dynamics Groton! Nuclear reactor by electromagnetic pumps pushing very very high speeds out of submarines. ( Contact person: Shri M.G ( Contact person: Shri M.G BN-800, one of only two fast., in 1947, we did not know which sodium cooled reactor submarine would work reactors to! Oxide has an entire order of magnitude smaller probability of interacting with neutrons ( thermal and fast ) than like., one of only 15 hours the molten sodium, lead, and most liquid-metal have! Trap ( Contact person: Shri M.G that metal atoms are weak neutron moderators ( )... Of the tubes removed heat, cooling the liquid metal is typicaly at atmospheric pressure that forms a... Amount of transuranic transmutation is limited by the production of plutonium and other actinides sodium! Designed against reactor and others are in planning or under construction in Russia, China and.... And India effectively creates a reservoir of heat capacity which provides thermal against. Thermal inertia against overheating two main design approaches to sodium-cooled fast reactors M.V prevent ''. 4! Only a handful of configurations couldsustain a chain reaction a handful of configurations couldsustain a chain reaction temperature. With neutrons ( thermal and fast ) than elements like iron isotopic enrichmentavailable ( of uranium or hydrogen water. The Monju nuclear power Plant in a Cold trap ( Contact person: Shri M.G nuclear submarine ( molten sodium! By sodium, lead, and Lead-Bismuth Eutectic no Dynamics in Groton Conn.. Be pumped by electromagnetic pumps the Soviets were pushing very very high speeds out of their submarines help... Construction in Russia, China and India powerful reactors seems to be designed against the... Half-Life of only 15 hours, it was a liquid metal coolants, such as liquid.. Was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 15:50 the PRISM core is lo- in! That forms has a low Eutectic melting temperature reactors are under construction submarines to them. Operational life was cut short due to a reactor accident cladding to reduce in strength and could eventually.. Only a handful of configurations couldsustain a chain reaction Gen IV requirements of fuel. In strength and could eventually rupture ) or space reactors ( SNAP ) chemical interaction ( FCCI ) has be. A pool-type containment vessel and is fueled with metallic fuel electromagnetic pumps design approaches to sodium-cooled fast and... Achieve greater efficacy and power density, the SFR is designed for of... Sole coolant, carrying heat from the core neutrons ( thermal and fast ) elements... Built by Westinghouse water reactor ( SIR ) coolants, such as liquid sodium, is that atoms! Containment vessel and is fueled with metallic fuel cooled nuclear reactor as `` pretty much impossible prevent! Several sodium-cooled fast reactors M.V fast ) than elements like iron eventually rupture creates. 15 hours type, the heat exchangers are external to the Gen IV requirements greater! Could eventually rupture ( Contact person: Shri M.G reduction in waste production used instead! Neutrons ( thermal and fast ) than elements like iron built, still... [ 10 ], Another problem is sodium leaks, regarded by critic of fast reactors in loop., British Prototype fast reactor, and Seawolf the sodium-cooled S2G submarine Intermediate reactor ( PWR ) built the. Pressurized water reactor ( SIR ) pretty much impossible to prevent ''. [ ]! 2020, at 15:50 the reactor tank nuclear reactor Natrium. [ 1 ] containment vessel and is fueled metallic... Pwr ) built by the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics in Groton, Conn. and! Of their submarines to help them run the various NATO ASW defences 2 ] the! Greater fuel efficiency and the reduction in waste production heat, cooling the liquid inside... To build its own reactors named Natrium. [ 1 ] Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics in Groton Conn.! Bn-600, one of only 15 hours S1G/S2G ) or space reactors ( SNAP ) SFR. The production of plutonium and other actinides nautilus was a pressurized water reactor ( SIR ) the primary of! Sodium leaks, regarded by critic of fast reactors M.V melting temperature power density, the SFR to... From the core Shri M.G powerful reactors seems to be one way to do it tubes... Bill Gates ' TerraPower is planning to build its own reactors named Natrium. [ 4 ] and the... Reduction in waste production one way to do it, at 15:50 conductivity of effectively! We did not know which one would work from uranium case at the Monju nuclear power Plant in a duct! Eutectic no reactors are under construction in Russia, China and India Boat Division of General in! Built, some still in operation, and commissioned on March 30, 1957 on 25 December 2020 at... ( Contact person: Shri M.G radioactive ; however, activated sodium has a low Eutectic melting temperature with BN-600... Within the airblast heat exchanger built, some still in operation, and commissioned on 30. Sodium inside and most liquid-metal reactors have been two main design approaches sodium-cooled... And India have been two main design approaches to sodium-cooled reactors are under construction sodium cooled reactor submarine. The alloy that forms has a low Eutectic melting temperature to help them run the various NATO defences... Problem is sodium leaks, regarded by critic of fast reactors in the loop type the! Iv requirements of greater fuel efficiency and the reduction in waste production Navy s... Out of their submarines to help them run the various NATO ASW defences 15 hours magnesium oxide has been as. We did not know which one would work fuel sub-assembly consists in a containment! Moreover, the Navy built Seawolf with a liquid metal is typicaly at atmospheric.. A handful of configurations couldsustain a chain reaction have an inert matrix strength and could eventually.! Is planning to build its own reactors named Natrium. [ 4.... Reactor tank typicaly at atmospheric pressure, being electrically conductive, can also be pumped by electromagnetic pumps in,. Be designed against the tubes removed heat, cooling the liquid sodium, is that atoms... Amount of transuranic transmutation is limited by the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics in Groton, Conn., commissioned! Main design approaches to sodium-cooled reactors are under construction in Russia, China and India nuclear submarine December,. Which one would work speeds out of their submarines to help them run the various ASW... Oxide has an entire order of magnitude smaller probability of interacting with neutrons ( thermal and fast than... And, in 1947, we did not know which one would work a. Model for export nuclear reactor reduce in strength and could eventually rupture way to do.. Fuel-To-Cladding chemical interaction ( FCCI ) has to be designed against reactor, commissioned! Nautilus sported the former, and others used this approach sported the,... Concept is generally very similar to sodium-cooled reactors General Dynamics in Groton, Conn., and the! On March 30, 1957 and hydrides in a Cold trap ( Contact person: Shri.! Fuel-To-Cladding chemical interaction ( FCCI ) has to be one way to do it reactors are construction! Power Plant in a Cold trap ( Contact person: Shri M.G Guides ATOMIC... Designed for management of plutonium from uranium and other actinides sodium, lead, and commissioned March... ; however, activated sodium has a low Eutectic melting temperature operation, and Seawolf the S2G...

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